wood pellet

Biomass pellets, also known as wood pellets, are primarily made from sawdust, wood shavings, bark, sanding dust, waste wood, branches, and various agricultural residues generated from wood processing, engineered board production, and post-harvest crop residues. These biomass materials are processed into pellets and used for combustion, barbecue, and fireplace heating. The combustion efficiency of biomass pellets exceeds 80% (surpassing the typical 60% efficiency of coal combustion), resulting in high heat output and minimal emissions of sulfur dioxide, ammonia nitrogen compounds, and dust.

Biomass Material for Making wood pellets

  1. Small wood shavings from furniture factories: Due to their larger particle size, they are not easily fed into wood pellet machines, making them prone to blockages. Therefore, the wood shavings need to be crushed before use.
  2. Agricultural crop residues: Agricultural crop residues include cotton stalks, wheat straw, rice straw, corn stalks, corn cobs, and other grain straw. Besides being used as raw materials for energy production, agricultural crop residues have other applications. For example, corn cobs can be used as the main raw material for producing xylitol and furfural in the chemical industry. Various types of straw, such as corn stalks, wheat straw, and cotton stalks, can be processed and mixed with resins to make fiberboard. Straw can also be directly returned to the fields as fertilizer.
  3. Sawdust from bandsaw cutting: Sawdust obtained from bandsaw cutting has good particle size for pellet production. It yields stable and smooth pellets with high hardness and low energy consumption.
  4. Wood scraps from boards and wood pieces: Wood scraps from boards and wood pieces need to be crushed before use.
  5. Fibrous materials: Fibrous materials should have controlled fiber length, typically not exceeding 5mm.
wood pellet machine
wood pellet machine

Requirement on raw materials for making pellets

  1. Strict moisture requirements:
    The moisture content of wood pellet raw materials must be strictly controlled, regardless of the type of wood shavings. Ideally, the moisture content should be kept within a range of 14% to 20%. If the material is too dry, it will not form properly, while excessive moisture can result in loose pellets. Jiangsu Jingtai Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd. produces wood drying machines that effectively address the moisture issue in wood pellet raw materials.
  2. Inherent binding properties of the material:
    The raw material must have inherent binding properties. Without it, the resulting wood pellets will either lack shape or be prone to breakage. Therefore, if you see materials without natural binding properties being compressed into pellets or blocks, it means that something has been done to the raw material, such as fermentation or the addition of binders.
  3. Addition of binders:
    Pure wood shavings can be used to make wood pellets without the need for additional binders. Wood shavings, being coarse fiber materials, possess certain natural binding properties. Through drying in a wood drying machine and subsequent compression, the pellets will naturally take shape and be solid.
  4. Can different types of wood shavings be mixed?
    While it is mentioned that pure wood shavings can be used, it doesn’t mean that other types of wood shavings cannot be mixed. Wood shavings from various wood species, such as sawdust, wood chips, and mahogany, as well as leftovers from furniture factories, can all be used. More broadly, materials like crop straw and peanut shells can also serve as raw materials for wood pellet machines. However, the resulting pellets may not be referred to as wood shavings pellets but rather straw pellets.
  5. Size of the material after grinding:
    Sawdust, branches, and other raw materials must be crushed before drying and pelletizing. The size of the grinding should be determined based on the desired diameter of the pellets and the aperture size of the pellet machine’s die. Both excessively large and small grinding sizes can affect production output and even result in failure to discharge materials.
  6. What to do if the raw materials develop mold?
    If the raw materials become moldy, turning black and experiencing decomposition of the cellulose within the wood shavings by microorganisms, they cannot be properly compressed into qualified pellets. If the use of such materials is unavoidable, it is recommended to mix them with more than 50% fresh wood shavings to ensure the production of qualified pellets.

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